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Научно-исследовательская деятельность

Пацкевич Н.Н., учитель немецкого языка ГУО "Средняя школа №4 г. Осиповичи". 

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Научно-исследовательская деятельность

1. Read the text about British and Belarusian civilians.

Britain and their civilians during the Second World War

Great Britain during the Second World War was not occupied by Germany, but this did not save the country from destruction, loss of population and resources. The government of the country declared war on Hitler and Germany already on September 3, 1939, immediately after the capture of Poland, and until September 2, Britain was at war with Third Reich. Only after the surrender of Japan, the war for the British state and its population was over.

The "blitz" on London began on the night of September 6-7, 1940.The raids continued uninterrupted until November 13, 1940, with between 100 and 150 medium bombers.

For those households with gardens (usually a two-family house), the government supplied Anderson bomb shelters as a kit of corrugated galvanized steel parts, nuts and bolts were also included in the kit. In preparing the place for installation, it was necessary to excavate four feet (1m 20 cm) of earth in the shelter site and cover the shelter with this earth after installation. The recommended coating thickness was approximately 18 inches (46 centimeters).

Many families who did not have a garden were provided with Morrison bomb shelters - steel cage shelters. Such a shelter could also serve as a durable table in the house. The government provided recommended home improvement plans.

Britain suffered relatively lightly compared with other countries.  Its villages and towns were not devastated to the same extent as those of, say, Poland, France, Germany and the Soviet Union; it did not have to endure the terror of occupation. 450,000 British people were killed from the population of 51 million people, it is 0,8 % of population.

Belarus and their civilians during the Second World War

The regime established on the territory of Belarus, which was temporarily occupied by the troops of fascist Germany and its satellites during the Great Patriotic War, was distinguished by exceptional cruelty and atrocities against the population - mass repressions and the destruction of citizens, the destruction and looting of the national economy, cultural values.

The rural population carried out "annual economic assignments" for the mandatory supply of grain, meat, eggs and other food products, as well as wool, flax, hemp, etc. For the Belarusian peasant, mandatory norms for the delivery of agricultural products were established, which were not permanent. For example, initially the average rate for grain for the districts of Minsk and Brest was 3 centners per hectare, in the area of ​​the economic inspection "Center" - from 100 to 180 kg, for potatoes - from 2 to 12 centners per hectare.

Belarus, among other republics and regions, was subject to complete colonization and Germanization. As it was occupied, the Nazis purposefully carried out their sinister plans. The local population was destroyed or turned into slaves of the German colonists. In order to secure the rear of the fascist troops and freely plunder the occupied territory, it was planned to identify and eliminate the most active and implacable enemies of Nazism, which included communists, army political workers, Soviet activists, intellectuals and simply educated people. Partisans, underground workers and saboteurs were to be subjected to immediate execution, and on a national basis - Jews and Gypsies.

To destroy the local population, the fascists created a whole system of prisons and death camps. There were 260 of them on the territory of occupied Belarus, including branches and departments. More than 1.4 million people were killed by the Nazis in the death camps.

During the years of occupation, Belarus has lost half of its national wealth. Energy capacities were almost completely destroyed, 90% of the machine park, sown areas were reduced by 40%, almost 3 million people were left without a roof over their heads. After liberation, there were 60,000 orphans in the republic. Social losses were huge. Before the war 9,183,400 people lived in Belarus. Total losses of Belarusian people are 2,177,724 civilians. It is 23,7% of population.

2. Mark the statement as true or false:

  1. The "blitz" on London began on the night of September 6-7, 1940.
  2. 1.8% of British people were killed during the Second World War.
  3. The Belarusian population was destroyed or turned into slaves of the German colonists.
  4. During the years of occupation, Belarus has lost quarter of its national wealth.
  5. Before the war 10,183,400 people lived in Belarus.

3. Answer the questions:

  1. Was Great Britain occupied by the Nazis?
  2. When did the government of Great Britain declare war on Hilter?
  3. What did the government of Great Britain supply to the households with the garden?
  4. How many prisons and death camps were on the Belarusian territory?
  5. What are the losses of the Belarusian people?

4. Continue the following sentences:

  1. Only after the surrender of Japan, the war for the British state…
  2. Many families who did not have a garden were provided with …
  3. 450,000 British people were killed from the population of …
  4. For the Belarusian peasant, mandatory norms for the delivery of agricultural products were established, which …
  5. Almost 3 million people were left …

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